EFLs Identity Growth toward EIL: A Case Study in Indonesia

Susi Andriani Simanjuntak, Hsi Nancy Lien

Abstract


Abstract: This study determined the English teachers and the students’ identity toward teaching and learning English as an international language (EIL). Here we adapted the model of three distinct White Identity orientations to EFL identity orientations by Howard, G. R. (1999). The author has designated white identity into fundamentalist, integrationist, and transformationist orientation. This study used of a qualitative case study in one of senior high school with English teachers and 2 grades in Indonesia by seeing their discourse as talk: classroom talk and teachers’ and students’ talk in the actual classroom and interview. Based on the results, EFLs identity was growing in some orientations. It was showed that they were fundamentalist in term of supremacy Standard English and inferiority Nonstandard English. But, the other case is they had an understanding the reality of English variations nowadays. Moreover, the results interestingly showed that they were in transformationist EFL identity when they were involved in global issue, nations, and cultures. It seemed that they were facing contradict orientation identity within themselves. Through these findings, it is very important to move forward the EFL identity of fundamentalist to integrationist and then be more transformationist EFLs. Implications and suggestions would be discussed in this study.

Keywords: English as an International Language (EIL), English Language Teaching, World Englises, English Foreign Language Identity Orientation.

Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan pertumbuhan identitas guru bahasa Inggris dan siswa terhadap pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa internasional (EIL). Di sini kami mengadaptasi model tiga pertumbuhan orientasi White Identity ke orientasi identitas EFL oleh Howard, G. R. (1999). Penulis telah menetapkan identitas kulit putih ke dalam orientasi fundamentalis, integrasionis, dan transformasionis. Penelitian ini menggunakan studi kasus kualitatif di salah satu sekolah menengah atas dengan satu guru bahasa Inggris dan dua kelas di Indonesia dengan melalui wacana mereka sebagai pembicaraan: pembicaraan kelas dan pembicaraan guru dan siswa di aktual kelas dan wawancara. Berdasarkan hasil, identitas EFL tumbuh dalam beberapa orientasi. Terlihat bahwa mereka fundamentalis dalam hal supremasi Bahasa Inggris Standar dan inferioritas Bahasa Inggris Nonstandar. Tapi, kasus lain adalah mereka memiliki pemahaman tentang realitas variasi bahasa Inggris saat ini. Terlebih lagi, hasil yang menarik menunjukkan bahwa mereka berada dalam identitas EFL transformasionis ketika mereka terlibat dalam isu global, negara, dan budaya. Tampaknya mereka menghadapi identitas orientasi yang kontradiktif dalam diri mereka. Melalui temuan-temuan ini, sangat penting untuk memajukan identitas EFL dari fundamentalis ke integrasionis dan kemudian menjadi EFL yang lebih transformatif. Implikasi dan saran akan dibahas dalam penelitian ini.

 

Kata kunci: Bahasa Inggris sebagai Bahasa Internasional (EIL), Pengajaran Bahasa Inggris, World Englises, Orientasi Identitas Bahasa Asing Bahasa Inggris.

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References


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McKay, S. L. (2003). EIL curriculum development. RELC Journal, 34(1), 31–47.

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Kubota, R. (2012). The politics of EIL: Toward border-crossing communication in and beyond English. In A. Matsuda (Ed.), Principles and practices of teaching English as an international language (pp. 55–69). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

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McKay, S. L. (2012). Principles of teaching English as an international language. In L. Alsagoff, S. L. McKay, G. Hu, & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Principles and practices for teaching English as an international language (pp. 28–46). New York: Routledge.

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Jenkins, J. (2003). World Englishes. London: Routledge.

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Skukauskaite, A., Rangel, J., Rodriguez, L. G., & Ramón, D. K. (2015). Understanding Classroom Discourse and Interaction: Qualitative Perspectives. in Markee, Numa. (Eds). The Handbook of Classroom Discourse and Interaction. West Sussex: John Wiley& Sons.

Flick, U. (2006). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.

Howard, G. R. (1999). We can't teach what we don't know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Auerbach, C. F., & Silverstein, L. B. (2003). Qualitative studies in psychology. Qualitative data: An introduction to coding and analysis. New York University Press.

Crystal, D. (2003). English as a global language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Crystal, D. (2006). Language and the internet. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

McKay, S. L. (2003). EIL curriculum development. RELC Journal, 34(1), 31–47.

Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of ‘English as a Foreign Language. London: British Council.

Kachru, Y., and L.E. Smith. (2008). Cultures, contexts and World Englishes. Abingdon, New York: Routledge.

Kirkpatrick, A. (2007). World Englishes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

McKay, S. L. (2002). Teaching English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sharifian, F. (2009). English as an international language: Perspectives and pedagogical issues. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Sharifian, F. (2011). Cultural conceptualisations and language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins & Co.

Kubota, R. (2012). The politics of EIL: Toward border-crossing communication in and beyond English. In A. Matsuda (Ed.), Principles and practices of teaching English as an international language (pp. 55–69). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.

Kumaravadivelu, B. (2008). Cultural globalization and language education. Yale University Press.

Manara, C. (2012). Intercultural dialogue and English language teaching: Indonesian teacher educators’ narratives of professional learning. Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

McKay, S. L. (2012). Principles of teaching English as an international language. In L. Alsagoff, S. L. McKay, G. Hu, & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Principles and practices for teaching English as an international language (pp. 28–46). New York: Routledge.

Matsuda, A. (2002). “International understanding” through teaching world Englishes. World Englishes, 21(3), 436–440.

Jenkins, J. (2003). World Englishes. London: Routledge.

Jenkins, J. (2007). English as a Lingua franca: Attitude and Identity. Oxford University Press.

Skukauskaite, A., Rangel, J., Rodriguez, L. G., & Ramón, D. K. (2015). Understanding Classroom Discourse and Interaction: Qualitative Perspectives. in Markee, Numa. (Eds). The Handbook of Classroom Discourse and Interaction. West Sussex: John Wiley& Sons.

Flick, U. (2006). An introduction to qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.

Howard, G. R. (1999). We can't teach what we don't know: White teachers, multiracial schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

Auerbach, C. F., & Silverstein, L. B. (2003). Qualitative studies in psychology. Qualitative data: An introduction to coding and analysis. New York University Press.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.33330/icossit.v1i1.637

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